Logunova Inna Viktorovna, Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of informatics, mathematics and general humanitarian sciences, Lipetsk branch of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (12B, Internatsionalnaya street, Lipetsk, Russia), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. One of the first measures of the agrarian reform of the 1990s was the creation of peasant (farmer) farms and the allocation of land plots to farmers on property rights, ownership and use (lease). This process was a kind of symbol of the formation of a new agricultural production structure in the country. The purpose of this study is to study the development of the land use system of farmers in the postreform decade and to identify the features of this process in the areas of the Central black earth economic region.
Materials and methods. As sources of research questionnaires of sample surveys of farmers and analytical references from the funds of the State archive of the Russian Federation, the State archive of the Lipetsk region, the current archives of the state statistics Committee of the Russian Federation and Lipetsk. A special place among the sources is occupied by the materials of the periodical press and normative legal acts. The methodological base of the study was made up of historical, genetic, typological and systemic methods that allowed to consider the process of formation of land relations and the formation of the structure of land use of farms.
Results. Features of formation and structure of land use of farmers of the Central Chernozem region during agrarian reform of the 1990s are studied, it is found out that the most acceptable for owners of farms types of land use in 1990–2000 became property and rent. The difficulties encountered by farmers in the implementation of land use in the period under review, namely, the difficulties in obtaining land for farming and the problem of land scarcity are identified. A classification of the social group of farmers, including five social strata. The classification is based on the following features: the size and structure of land and property holdings, the fact of employment, the level of personal participation of farm members in the production process.
Conclusions. The process of formation of land use of farmers in 1990–2000 took place slowly. Conditionally it can be divided into three stages: 1990–1992 – the time of preparation of legal base, the creation of funds redistribution ze-stranded, the first farmers; 1992–1996 – conducting poetizatsii land and property of agricultural enterprises, the increase in those wishing to establish a farm, the growth of the shadow land transactions by Directors of enterprises; 1996–2000 – the period of stabilization characterized by increased size of land holdings of farmers and removing the size limits of leased lands. The pronounced problem of farm land scarcity was solved either by leasing land or by combining farmers’ allotments into partner farms. Different initial conditions of formation of farms were the reason of rather quickly developed differentiation of social group of farmers.
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